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The Amygdala : Emotinal Memory & Modulation

The Amygdalae are almond shaped structures located in medial temporal lobes of brain as prominent ridge on the superior terminal part of the inferior ventricular horns. The tail of the caudate nucleus and its medial stria terminalis extend anteriorly to the amygdala bearing the hypothalamic connection. The right and left amygdalae communicate via fibers passing through anterior commissure. Being part of limbic system they play role in consolidation of memory and emotional learning, as well as fear conditioning. Its connections to olfactory pathway as well as hypothalamic centers enables endocrine modulations by various sensory stimuli.

Selective lesions of amygdale has shown in experimental models to result in Kluver-Bucy Syndrome. Kluver -bucy syndrome consist of loss of fear, decreased in emotional reactions, disability of recognition of familiar objects.

Neuroimaging studies by MRI shows substantial role of amygdala in many psychological disorders such as Anxiety disorder, Obssesive Compulsive disorder. Borderline personality. PTSD Post Traumatic Stress Disorder.





The amygdala modulates the consolidation of memories of emotionally arousing experiences

McGasgh JL. Annu Rev Neurosci. 2004;27:1-28.

PMID 15217324


Disrupted amygdala-prefrontal functional connectivity in civilian women with posttraumatic stress disorder.

Stevens JS, et al. J Psychiatr Res. 2013 Jul 1

PMID  23827769



Amygdala and hippocampal volumes in adolescents and adults with bipolar disorder

Kaufman, et al. Arch GenPsychiatry 60(12): 1201-8.

PMID 14662552



Amygdala volume and social network size in humans

Bickart, Kevin C.,Wright, Christopher I Nature Neuroscience 14 (2): 163-164.

PMID  21186358  

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